There are several possible causes of a miscarriage. These different causes are:
Where there is a family history of a genetic problem. This is tested by testing the genetic code of the parents to see if they carry a problem.
Some women have blood that clots too easily because of an increase or decrease in the proteins that are associated with the clotting mechanism. This is investigated by various blood tests including the lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies (Anti Phospholipid Syndrome), as well as a complete thrombophillia (clotting) screen. If these tests are positive or increasingly if there are several unexplained miscarriages, then treatment with Aspirin at 75mg dose, and or Clexane (heparin) a protein that makes the blood less likely to clot inappropriately, and also has the effect of combating inflammation is prescribed as a daily subcutaneous injection up to 12 weeks pregnant, or up to 34 weeks in the worst case scenario if the blood tests are very abnormal.
This can be overactive and the woman’s body recognises the foreign genetic code expressed on the early baby which comes from her male partner and therefore rejects that pregnancy in the same way as one would a mismatched kidney transplant. This can be tested by checking the activity of the woman’s Natural killer cells against her male partners blood. If overactive this is usually treated with steroids (Prednisolone at 20 mg per day until 12 weeks pregnant and then reduced over 12 days to stop). A natural substance Intralipid (Soya and Eggs) can also be used as an intravenous drip to combat raised NK cells.
In the worst case scenario if the blood tests are highly abnormal then IVIG is given rarely as a drip. This contains pooled protective antibodies that reduce the chances of miscarriage.